Leylat al-isra wal-miraj-The Transference and Ascension of the Prophet
On the night of the 27th day of the month of Rajab of the Muslim lunar calendar, a miraculous journey (isra) of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) took place from Mecca to al-Quds (Jerusalem) and his rise (miraj) to heaven to the Divine Throne, where he had communion with Allaah. The angel Jibril appeared to him with a winged animal named al-Buraq and carried him "from the Holy Mosque to the Most Remote Mosque" (Bl. Qur'an, 17: 1). During this occasion, the Muslims were required to perform a daily five-fold namaz. In 2021, according to the Gregorian calendar, this night falls on the night of 10th to 11th of March.

The happenings of this night are described by the Almighty in His book. In fact, the 17th Surah of the Noble Qur'an is called "al-Isra" - "Night Transfer":

سُبْحَانَ/ الَّذِي أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى الَّذِي بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آيَاتِنَا ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

Glory to (Allah), Who brought the night of His servant from the Sacred Mosque to the Most Remote Mosque*, the surroundings of which We blessed, to show him some of Our signs. Truly, He is the Hearer, the Seer (of all things) (Bl. K., 17: 1).

 The significance of these events is conveyed in the tafsir of Abdullah Yusuf Ali
(Publishing house "Medina", 2007):

"At the beginning of the 17th Sura, the Prophet Muhammad's nocturnal journey is narrated: he was moved from the Holy Mosque of Mecca (the Kaaba) to the Most Remote Mosque in Jerusalem in one night and witnessed several signs of Allah. Most commentators take this night journey (isra’) quite literally. The hadiths describe this journey in detail, and their study helps to understand its meaning. The Prophet was first transported to the site of the early Revelations in Jerusalem, and then was raised to the seventh heaven to the Highest Throne. The Spaniard Miguel Asin, professor of Arabic studies at the University of Madrid, has shown that mi'raj literature had a great influence on medieval European literature, especially on Dante's "Divine Comedy", which became an entire epoch in medieval European literature.

The reference to this great story of the mi'raj best of all shows the human soul in the religious growth. The first step in this growth should be moral behavior, respect for the rights of parents and children, kindness to fellow human beings, courage and firmness in the hour of danger, a sense of personal responsibility and a sense of the presence of Allah during prayer and glorification of the Lord."

* This refers to the Temple of Solomon [Suleiman] in Jerusalem on the hill of Moriah; on the place of the Temple, destroyed in 70th by the Romans, there is a rock temple complex, the beginning of the construction of which dates back to the time of the second righteous Caliph Umar. The complex includes the Dome of the Temple Rock (Kubbat asSahra) and the Alaxa mosque ("The Remotest"). The construction of the Dome of the Rock and the Alaxa Mosque were completed by the Umayyad Caliph AbdulMalik in 691 and called it "The remotest " because it was a place of worship in the far west, known to the Arabs of the time of the Prophet Muhammad; it was a holy place for both Jews and Christians. But neither of them tried to restore the Temple, even when Jerusalem became part of the Byzantine (Roman) Empire, whose ruler confirmed the patriarchs in Jerusalem.
The main dates associated with the Temple are: it was completed by Solomon in about 1004 BC, destroyed by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar in about 586 BC, rebuilt under Ezra and Nehemiah in about 515 BC, turned into an idolatrous temple by one of the followers of Alexander the Great, Antiochus Epiphanius in 167 BC, rebuilt by Herod in the period from 17 to 29 AD and completely destroyed by the emperor Titus in 70 AD. These ups and downs are among the greatest signs of religious history.